Vulnerability of pest management in New Zealand apples pesticide toxicity to <i>Aphelinus mali</i> (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae)
AbstractNew pest management practices in New Zealands apple sector have provided ecological and economic outcomes that are recognised by growers and exporters Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) pest control systems that combine biological control selective insecticides and mating disruption have been developed to achieve these outcomes Although pest management in apple orchards is now more sustainable it is also highly vulnerable to pesticideinduced disruption The toxicity of four pesticides (spinetoram thiacloprid spinosad and spirotetramat) on the natural enemy of woolly apple aphid Aphelinus mali was examined While applications of spinetoram were the primary cause of aphid outbreaks in 200708 other insecticides can contribute to the instability of this biocontrol system The consequences of applying these disruptive pesticides to aphid control are discussed together with strategies to mitigate the vulnerability of the IFP programme to pest outbreaks
How to Cite
Rogers, D., Lo, P. and Walker, J. 2015. Vulnerability of pest management in New Zealand apples pesticide toxicity to <i>Aphelinus mali</i> (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae). New Zealand Plant Protection. 68, (Jan. 2015), 299–305. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2015.68.5826.