Drift measurements for conditions of hydrogen cyanamide spraying in kiwifruit

  • Robert Connell Lincoln University
  • Scott Post Lincoln Agritech http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0421-8491
  • Mark Ledebuhr Application Insight
  • Brian Moorhead Lincoln Agritech
  • Andrew Hewitt University of Queensland


Kiwifruit are sprayed in late winter with hydrogen cyanamide to enhance with bud burst. The trellis layout of kiwifruit vines in combination with the canopy dormancy at that time of year means that a higher portion of the spray is able to drift away from the canopy. A spray application field study was conducted in a kiwifruit orchard to investigate spray drift potential, with particular focus for conditions relevant to hydrogen cyanamide applications. Spray application with conventional airblast-sprayer hollow-cone nozzles/adjuvant was compared with air-induction (AI) nozzles/drift-reducing adjuvant. Spray was applied every second row in the orchard with spray drift sampling conducted by measuring vertical distribution of spray deposition on both sides of the downwind shelterbelt. The trial showed that airborne drift carried to a height of at least 15 m to the downwind edge of the orchard, which was the height of the vertical sampling towers. The air-induction nozzle/drift-reducing adjuvant system reduced the drift intercepted at 15 m height on the downwind side of the shelterbelt by approximately 78% compared to the standard nozzle/adjuvant system.


Bonds JAS, Leggett M 2015. A literature review of downwind drift from airblast sprayers: development of standard methodologies and a drift database. Transactions of the ASABE 58: 1471-1477. https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.58.11057

Connell R, Woodward S, Zabkiewicz J, Hewitt A 2010. Shelterbelt interception of agrichemicals: model and field results. Aspects of Applied Biology 99: 443-448.

Fritz BK, Hoffmann WC 2008. Collection efficiencies of various airborne spray flux samplers used in aerial application research. Journal of ASTM international 5: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1520/JAI101493

Gaskin R, Manktelow D, Steele K 2006. Adjuvant and application technologies to minimise off-target drift from kiwifruit sprays. New Zealand Plant Protection 59: 217.

Gaskin R, Manktelow D, May W 2007. Adjuvants and air inclusion nozzles reduce hydrogen cyanamide spray drift in kiwifruit orchards. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Adjuvants for Agrochemicals (ISAA2007). Columbus, OH, USA, 6-9 Aug. 2007.

Gaskin R, Manktelow D, May W 2009. Field studies to optimise spray deposits on shelterbelts and minimise off-target drift. Report to NZ Kiwifruit Growers, Inc. SFF Project # 06/090. July 2009. http://maxa.maf.govt.nz/sff/about-projects/search/06-090/shelter-drift-report.pdf

Gaskin R, Manktelow D, May B, Max S 2008. Development of Best Practice to minimise off-target drift from hydrogen cyanamide sprays in kiwifruit orchards. New Zealand Plant Protection 61: 153-158.

Gaskin R, Manktelow D, Cook S, May W, van Leeuwen R 2013. Effects of canopy density on spray deposition in kiwifruit. New Zealand Plant Protection 66: 194-198.

Holland P, Maber J 1992. Reducing the problem of spray drift. NZ Kiwifruit, Feb: 18-19.

Holland P, Maber J, May W, Malcolm C 1997. Drift from orchard spraying. Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Conference. Pp. 112-118.

Johnson D 1995. Drift from orchard airblast applications: Integration and summary of 1993 and 1994 field studies. Spray Drift Task Force (SDTF) Report No. I95-004. Stewart Agricultural Research Services, Inc. Macon, MO, USA.

Moller H, Wearing A, Perley C, Rosin C, Blackwell G, Campbell H, Hunt L 2007. Biodiversity on kiwifruit orchards: the importance of shelterbelts. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Kiwifruit, Rotorua. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2007.753.80

Nufarm n.d. Driftstop. http://www.nufarm.com/assets/37041/1/DriftStopBrochure.pdf

Peterson J, Wolf T, Mazurek K, Caldwell B 2008. The movement of spray drift near a live shelterbelt. Soils & Crops Conference, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, February 28-29, 2008.

Raupach MR, Leys JF, Woods N, Dorr G, Cleugh HA 2000. Modelling the effects of riparian vegetation on spray drift and dust: The role of local protection. Technical Report 29/00. CSIRO, Canberra, Australia. http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/technical2000/tr29-00.pdf

Schep L, Temple W, Beasley M 2007. The evaluation of hydrogen cyanamide-related inquiries to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre between 1990 and 2006. Clinical Toxicology 45: 360.

Schep L, Temple W, Beasley M 2009. The adverse effects of hydrogen cyanamide on human health: an evaluation of inquiries to the New Zealand National Poisons Centre. Clinical Toxicology 47: 58-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/15563650802459254

Zhu H, Reichard DL, Fox RD, Brazee RD, Ozkan HE 1996. Collection efficiency of spray droplets on vertical targets. Transactions of the ASABE 39: 415-422. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.27517
How to Cite
Connell, R., Post, S., Ledebuhr, M., Moorhead, B., & Hewitt, A. (2018). Drift measurements for conditions of hydrogen cyanamide spraying in kiwifruit. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71, 19-24. https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2018.71.186
Vol 71 Pathogens 1 2018