Review of the risk factors associated with kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv <i>actinidiae</i>


  • K.J. Froud
  • K.R. Everett
  • J.L. Tyson
  • R.M. Beresford
  • N. Cogger



Bacterial canker of kiwifruit commonly referred to as Psa is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv actinidiae and the biovar 3 strain has affected kiwifruit vines in New Zealand since 2010 Psa has had an impact on the management and production of kiwifruit in New Zealand This paper provides a review of the epidemiological risk factors that are associated with Psa disease within orchards The presence of the pathogen rain and a susceptible host are sufficient to cause disease in kiwifruit but there are other risk factors that can increase the amount of disease that develops and the spread of disease including other environmental factors (eg temperature) host factors (eg cultivar) and management factors (eg pruning practices) The aim of this literature review was to describe the current knowledge of a range of known and postulated risk factors for the development of bacterial canker in kiwifruit




How to Cite

Froud, K.J., K.R. Everett, J.L. Tyson, R.M. Beresford, and N. Cogger. “Gt”;. New Zealand Plant Protection 68 (January 8, 2015): 313–327. Accessed June 7, 2023.




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