Insect flower visitors of planted native species within the arable landscape on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand

  • Franziska G. Schmidlin Lincoln University
  • Jon J. Sullivan Lincoln University
  • Mike H. Bowie Lincoln University
  • Brad G. Howlett Plant & Food Research
Keywords: agriculture, ecosystem services, pollination, native restoration, semi-natural habitats, pollinator resource, crop pollination

Abstract

Almost all of the original native vegetation of Canterbury Plains has been replaced with an arable landscape of managed exotic vegetation. A previous study planted small areas of native trees on arable farms in 2013 to enhance the abundance and diversity of beneficial insect crop pollinators. The aim of the current study was to assess insect flower visitation at three sites in the fifth year after planting. Weekly standardised surveys of native flower visitors were conducted between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 2349 insects from 37 taxa were observed within three native plantings. Native bees (Lasioglossum sordidum 20%) and the honey bee, Apis mellifera (19%), were the most common followed by the large hoverfly, Melangyna novaezelandiae (16%). The calliphorid flies, brown blowfly Calliphora stygia (8%) and blue blowfly Calliphora vicina (6%), were also well represented. The most abundant insects visited four or more of the eight study plant species. Most (52%) of the flower visitors where natives. Many of these insects are known crop pollinators and it is likely that they assist with crop pollination.

References

Breitwieser I, Ward JM 1997. Transfer of Cassinia leptophylla (Compositae) to Ozothamnus. New Zealand Journal of Botany 35(1): 125-128.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1997.10410675

Davidson MM, Howlett BG, Butler RC, Taylor NM, Walker MK 2015. The influence of shelterbelts in arable farmland on beneficial and pest invertebrates. New Zealand Plant Protection 68: 367-372.

Dicks, LV, Baude M, Roberts SPM, Phillips J, Green M, Carvell, C 2015. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge. Ecological Entomology 40: 22-35.
https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12226

Donovan BJ, Howlett BG, Walker MK 2010. Relocation and establishment of nesting populations of the native bee Leioproctus huakiwi Donovan (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). New Zealand Entomologist 33: 109-113.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00779962.2010.9722198

Dynes RA, Burggraaf VT, Goulter CG, Dalley DE 2010. Canterbury farming: production, processing and farming systems.

Fontaine C, Dajoz I, Meriguet J, Loreau, M 2006. Functional diversity of plant–pollinator interaction webs enhances the persistence of plant communities (pollinator diversity and ecosystem sustainability). PLoS Biology 4(1).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040001

Fukuda Y, Moller H, Burns B 2011. Effects of organic farming, fencing and vegetation origin on spiders and beetles within shelterbelts on dairy farms. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 54(3): 155-176.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2011.591402

Garibaldi LA, Steffan-Dewenter I, Winfree R, Aizen MA, Bommarco R, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Carvalheiro LG, Harder LD, Afik O and others 2013. Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey-bee abundance. Science 339: 1608-1611.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1230200

Howlett BG, Donovan BJ, McCallum JA, Newstrom LE, Teulon DAJ 2005. Between and within field variability of New Zealand native flower visitors to onions. New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 213-218.

Howlett BG, Walker MK, Newstrom-Lloyd LE, Donovan BJ, Teulon, DAJ 2009. Window traps and direct observations record similar arthropod flower visitor assemblages in two mass flowering crops. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133(7): 553-564.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.2009.01395.x

Howlett BG, Walker MK, Rader R, Butler RC, Newstrom-Lloyd LE, Teulon DAJ 2011. Can insect body pollen counts be used to estimate pollen deposition on pak choi stigmas? New Zealand Plant Protection 64: 25-31.

Howlett BG 2012. Hybrid carrot seed crop pollination by the fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Applied Entomology 136(6): 421-430.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01665.x

Howlett BG, Davidson MM, Mathers D, Pyke NB 2013a. Hedgerow plants to support crop pollination and pest management. The Weta 46: 3-12.

Howlett BG, Butler RC, Nelson WR, Donovan B 2013b. Impact of climate change on crop pollinator activity in New Zealand. MPI Technical Paper No: 2013/30, Ministry for Primary Industries. www.mpi.govt.nz/document-vault/4101 (accessed 13 April 2018). 45 pp.

Howlett BG, Lankin-Vega GO, Pattemore DE 2015. Native and introduced bee abundances on carrot seed crops in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 68: 373-379.

Howlett BG, Davidson MM, Pattemore DE, Walker MK, Nelson WR 2016. Seasonality of calliphorid and sarcophagid flies across Canterbury arable farms requiring pollinators. New Zealand Plant Protection 69: 290-295.

Howlett BG, Evans LJ, Pattemore DE, Nelson WR 2017. Stigmatic pollen delivery by flies and bees: Methods comparing multiple species within a pollinator community. Basic and Applied Ecology 19: 19-25.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2016.12.002

Jauker F, Diekötter T, Schwarzbach F, Wolters V 2009. Pollinator dispersal in an agricultural matrix: opposing responses of wild bees and hoverflies to landscape structure and distance from main habitat. Landscape Ecology 24(4): 547-555.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9331-2

Klein A, Vaissière B, Cane J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham S, Kremen C, Tscharntke T 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 274(1608): 303-13.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3721

Lentini, PE, Martin, TG, Gibbons P, Fischer J, Cunningham SA 2012. Supporting wild pollinators in a temperate agricultural landscape: Maintaining mosaics of natural features and production. Biological Conservation 149(1): 84-92.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.02.004

Maldonado MB, Lomáscolo SB, Vázquez DP 2013. The importance of pollinator generalization and abundance for the reproductive success of a generalist plant. PLoS ONE. 2013:8(10):e75482.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075482

Mesa LA, Howlett BG, Grant JE, Didham RK 2013. Changes in the relative abundance and movement of insect pollinators during the flowering cycle of Brassica rapa crops: implications for gene flow. Journal of Insect Science 13: 13.
https://doi.org/10.1673/031.013.1301

Morandin LA, Kremen C 2013. Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields. Ecological Applications 23(4): 829-839.
https://doi.org/10.1890/12-1051.1

Ponisio LC, M'Gonigle LK, Kremen, C 2016. On-farm habitat restoration counters biotic homogenization in intensively managed agriculture. Global Change Biology: 22(2). 704-715.
https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13117

Potts SG, Biesmeijer JC, Kremen C, Neumann P, Schweiger O, Kunin WE 2010. Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25(6): 345-353.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007

Rader R, Howlett B, Cunningham S, Westcott D, Newstrom-Lloyd L, Walker M, Teulon D, Edwards W 2009. Alternative pollinator taxa are equally efficient, but not as effective as the honeybee in a mass flowering crop. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 1080-1087.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01700.x

Rader R, Edwards W, Westcott D, Cunningham S, Howlett B 2011. Pollen transport differs among bees and flies in a human-modified landscape. Diversity and Distributions 17: 519-529.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00757.x

Rader R, Reilly J, Bartomeus I, Winfree R 2013. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops. Global Change Biology 19: 3103-3110.
https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12264

Rader R, Bartomeus I, Garibaldi LA, Garratt MPD, Howlett BG, Winfree R et al. 2016. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(1): 146-151.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517092112

Stavert JR, Pattemore DE, Bartomeus I, Gaskett AC, Beggs JR 2018. Exotic flies maintain pollination services as native pollinators decline with agricultural expansion. Journal of Applied Ecology, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13103

Venturini EM, Drummond FA, Hoshide AK, Dibble AC, Stack LB 2017. Pollination reservoirs for wild bee habitat enhancement in cropping systems: a review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 41(2): 101-142.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.2016.1258377

Walker MK, Howlett BG, McCallum JA, Wallace AR, Teulon DAJ 2009. Small arthropods as pollinators in a New Zealand pak choi field trial New Zealand Plant Protection 62: 92-98.

Walker MK, Howlett BG, Wallace AR, McCallum JA, Teulon DAJ 2011. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination. Journal of Insect Science 11: 98.
https://doi.org/10.1673/031.011.9801
Published
2018-07-02
How to Cite
Schmidlin, F., Sullivan, J., Bowie, M., & Howlett, B. (2018). Insect flower visitors of planted native species within the arable landscape on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2018.71.170
Section
Vol 71 Beneficial Insects 2018