Genetic diversity in Dactylonectria pauciseptata associated with black foot disease in New Zealand
The fungal genera Ilyonectria and Dactylonectria are causal agents of black foot disease affecting grapevines. A New Zealand survey of grapevines symptomatic for this disease was conducted in 2005, and 11 D. pauciseptata isolates were recovered. The incidence of this disease has increased over the last decade so a multi-gene approach was used to accurately identify these isolates and to determine whether they could infect grapevine roots in vitro. Eight of the original 11 D. pauciseptata isolates remained viable and were recovered from storage. DNA sequencing, universally primed polymerase chain reaction (UP-PCR) and a detached root assay were used to characterise these eight isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS, β-tubulin, EF1-α and histone gene regions showed a monophyletic clade using the rRNA gene, EF1-α and histone gene, but paraphyletic based on β-tubulin. UP-PCR showed genetic diversity, with five major groups (P<0.01), with major groups concordant with the β-tubulin phylogeny. Pathogenicity tests with two common rootstocks showed that isolates produced lesions. Two distinct groups of D. pauciseptata were identified. Both groups are capable of infecting grapevine roots.
Agustí-Brisach C, Armengol J 2013. Black-foot disease of grapevine: an update on taxonomy, epidemiology and management strategies. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 52: 245−261.
Aiello D, Guarnaccia V, Epifani F, Perrone G, Polizzi G 2014. 'Cylindrocarpon' and Ilyonectria species causing root and crown rot disease of potted Laurustinus plants in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12306.
Alaniz S, Armengol J, León M, García-Jiménez J Abad-Campos P 2009. Analysis of genetic and virulence diversity of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri and C. macrodidymum associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Mycological Research 113: 16–23.
Baskarathevan J, Jaspers MV, Jones EE, Cruickshank R, Ridgway HJ 2012. Genetic and pathogenicity diversity of Neofusicoccum parvum in New Zealand vineyards. Fungal Biology 116: 276–288.
Bleach MC, Jones EE, Jaspers MV 2006. Survey for black foot decline in New Zealand vineyards. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Soil borne Diseases Symposium.
Bulat SA, Lubeck M, Mironenko N, Jensen DF, Lubeck PF 1998. UP-PCR analysis and ITS1 ribotyping of strains of Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Mycological Research 102: 933–943.
Cabral A, Groenewald ZJ, Rego C, Oliveira H, Crous WP 2012. Cylindrocarpon root rot: multi-gene analysis reveals novel species within the Ilyonectria radicicola species complex. Mycological Progress 11: 655–688. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-011-0777-7
Carbone I, Anderson JB, Kohn LM 1999. Patterns of descent in clonal lineages and their multilocus fingerprints are resolved with combined gene genealogies. Evolution 53: 11–21.
Clarke KR, Ainsworth M 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Marine Ecology Progress Series 92: 205–219.
Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Risede JM, Hywel-Jones NL 2004. Calonectria species and their Cylindrocladium anamorphs: species with sphaeropedunculate vesicles. Studies in Mycology 50: 415–429.
Cumagen CJR, Hockenhull J, Lubeck M 2000. Characterization of Trichoderma isolates from Philippine rice fields by UP-PCR and rDNA-ITS1 analysis: identification of UP-PCR markers. Journal of Phytopathology-Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 148: 109–115.
dos Santos RF, Blume E, Muniz MFB, Steckling SM, Burtet GW 2014. First report of "Cylindrocarpon" pauciseptatum associated with black foot disease of grapevine in Brazil. Plant Disease 98: 567.
Erper I, Agustí-Brisach C, Tunali B, Armengol J 2013. Characterization of root rot disease of kiwifruit in the Black Sea region of Turkey. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136: 291–300.
Halleen F, Schroers HJ, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW 2004. Novel species of Cylindrocarpon (Neonectria) and Campylocarpon gen. nov. associated with black foot disease of grapevines (Vitis spp.). Studies in Mycology 50: 431–455.
Lombard L, Van Der Merwe NA, Groenewald JL, Crous PW 2014. Lineages in Nectriaceae: re-evaluating the generic status of Ilyonectria and allied genera. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 53: 515–532.
Lübeck PS, Alekhina IA, Lübeck M, Bulat SA 1998. UP‐PCR genotyping and rDNA analysis of Ascochyta pisi Lib. Journal of Phytopathology 146: 51–5.
Martin MT, Martin L, Cuesta MJ, García-Benavides P 2011. First report of Cylindrocarpon pauciseptatum associated with grapevine decline from Castilla y León, Spain. Plant Disease 95: 361.
Pathrose B 2012. Characterising sub-species variation in New Zealand Cylindrocarpon species that cause black foot of grapevines. PhD thesis, Lincoln University, New Zealand.
Pathrose B, Jones EE, Jaspers MV, Ridgway HJ 2010. Development of a grapevine detached root assay for assessing pathogenicity of Cylindrocarpon spp. New Zealand Plant Protection 63: 24–7.
Petit E, Gubler WD 2005. Characterization of Cylindrocarpon species, the cause of black foot disease of grapevine in California. Plant Disease 89: 1051–1059.
Pottinger B, Stewart A, Carpenter M, Ridgway HJ 2002. Low genetic variation detected in New Zealand populations of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 41: 199–211.
Saitou N, Nei M 1987. The neighbour-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4: 406–425.
Schroers HJ, Zerjav M, Munda A, Halleen F, Crous PW 2008. Cylindrocarpon pauciseptatum sp. nov., with notes on Cylindrocarpon species with wide, predominantly 3-septate macroconidia. Mycological Research 112: 82‒92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.10.004
Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S 2011. MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 2731–2739. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121
Tewoldemedhin YT, Mazzola M, Mostert L, McLeod A 2011. Cylindrocarpon species associated with apple tree roots in South Africa and their quantification using real-time PCR. European Journal of Plant Pathology 129: 637–651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-010-9728-4
Úrbez-Torres JR, Haag P, Bowen P, O'Gorman DT 2014. Grapevine trunk diseases in British Columbia: incidence and characterization of the fungal pathogens associated with black foot disease of grapevine. Plant Disease 98: 456–468. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-13-0524-RE
White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ, eds. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, New York, USA. Pp. 315–322.