Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae survival in point-inoculated kiwifruit vines
The survival and spread over time of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in point-inoculated kiwifruit vines is poorly understood. Forty-eight 2-year-old vines of Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ were inoculated 30 cm above the crown, either during the active growth (autumn) or dormant (winter) period in two successive years. Vines were cultivated for 3—4 years, after which bacterial isolations were made at intervals along the vines from crown to tip. Psa was found up to 220 cm above the inoculation point and in some of the crowns, 30 cm below the inoculation point. The sites where Psa was found within vines were not always contiguous. Fewer vines of ‘Hayward’ developed serious symptoms or died than ‘Hort16A’; however, more surviving vines of ‘Hayward’ were Psa-positive than those of ‘Hort16A’. Psa was able to survive for at least 4 years in apparently healthy kiwifruit vines. This has implications for the movement of asymptomatic budwood to areas without Psa.
Gao X, Huang Q, Zhao Z, Han Q, Ke X, Qin H, Huang L 2016. Studies on the infection, colonization, and movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit tissues using a GFPuv-labeled strain. PLoS One 11(3): e0151169. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151169
Hoyte S, Reglinski T, Elmer P, Mauchline N, Stannard K, Casonato S, Chee AA, Parry F, Taylor J, Wurms K and others 2015. Developing and using bioassays to screen for Psa resistance in New Zealand kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae 1095: 171-180. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1095.21
King EO, Ward MK, Raney DE 1954. Two simple media for the demonstration of pyocyanin and fluorescin. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 44(2): 301-307.
Minardi P, Ardizzi S, Lucchese C, Bertaccini A 2015. Latent infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A asymptomatic plants: five years of survival and colonization of a mutant virulent strain. II International Psa Symposium. Pp. 19.
Mohan SK, Schaad NW 1987. An improved agar plating assay for detecting Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and P. s. pv. phaseolicola in contaminated bean seed. Phytopathology 77(10): 1390-1395. https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-77-1390
Rees-George J, Vanneste JL, Cornish DA, Pushparajah IPS, Yu J, Templeton MD, Everett KR 2010. Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers based on the 16S-23S rDNA intertranscribed spacer region and comparison with PCR primers based on other gene regions. Plant Pathology 59(3): 453-464. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02259.x
Tyson JL, Rees-George J, Curtis CL, Manning MA, Fullerton RA 2012. Survival of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on the orchard floor over winter. New Zealand Plant Protection 65: 25-28.
Tyson JL, Curtis CL, Manning MA, Rees-George J, Snelgar WP, Blattmann P 2014. Systemic movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit vines in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection 67: 41-47.
Tyson JL, Curtis CL, Manning MA, Dobson SJ, McKenna CE 2016. Preliminary investigations of the risk of plant debris as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae inoculum source. New Zealand Plant Protection 69: 11-16.
Tyson JL, Vergara MJ, Butler RC, Seelye JF, Morgan ER 2017a. Survival, growth and detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Actinidia in vitro cultures. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2017.1414064
Tyson JL, Manning MA, Curtis CL, Vergara MV, Dobson S, McKenna CE, Beresford RM 2017b. Monitoring Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae inoculum production and infection in New Zealand over a three-year period. IX International Symposium on Kiwifruit. Pp. 116 (Book of abstracts).