Biosecurity risks from stink bugs to New Zealand kiwifruit identified in Chinese language literature

  • David A.J. Teulon Plant & Food Research
  • Bingqin Xu Plant & Food Research


Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), native to Asia including China, is a major invasive horticultural and crop pest in North America and Europe, and now threatens the southern hemisphere. BMSB has not established in New Zealand although it is regularly intercepted at its borders. Relatively little is known about the impact of BMSB on kiwifruit, an important horticultural crop in New Zealand; at least in English language literature. Searches were conducted in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) platform using Chinese characters for BMSB (茶翅蝽) and kiwifruit (猕猴桃), and also in English, in international platforms. We identified 17 and eight publications, respectively, indicating that BMSB and yellow spotted stinkbug (YSSB) (麻皮蝽 and 黄斑蝽) are major pests of kiwifruit in China. Little information on BMSB or YSSB and their pest status in kiwifruit was found in English language searches in international platforms. Searching Chinese databases with Chinese characters in combination with searches in international databases is necessary to ensure comprehensive coverage for biosecurity risk assessment.


Anon. 2014. Yellow spotted stink bug. Ministry for Primary Industries. Wellington, New Zealand. (accessed March 2018).

Anon. 2015. Specialty Crops at Risk to BMSB Damage. USDA. (accessed April 2018).

Anon. 2017a. Brown marmorated stink bug. (accessed 18 March 2018).

Anon. 2017b. BMSB – kiwifruit impacts and on-orchard management. Kiwifruit Vine Health. (accessed March 2018).

Cai L, Dong M, Du X 2008. The occurrence rule of brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys and its control strategies in the suburb of Beijing. Northern Horticulture 11: 166–168. In Chinese.

Cui X, Li N, Li X, Hu Q, Bu W 2017. Recognition of late instars of nymphs among nine stinkbug species injuring crops and trees. Plant Protection 1(43): 83–88. In Chinese.

Du C, Fu Z, Zhao H 2011. Structure and dynamics of arthropod communities in kiwifruit orchards. Journal of Northwest A & F University (Nat. Sci. Ed.) 39 (11): 89–96. In Chinese.

Duthie C 2012. Risk analysis of Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) on all pathways. Ministry for Primary Industries. Wellington.

Faúndez EI, Rider DA 2017. The brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Chile. Arquivos Entomolóxicos 17: 305–307.

Feng, H 2007. The occurrence and control of pests in kiwifruit orchards. Northwest Horticulture 12: 22. In Chinese.

Ferguson AR 2015. Kiwifruit in the world – 2014. Acta Horticulturae 1096: 33–46.

Freshfacts 2017. Fresh facts. New Zealand Horticulture. The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research. (accessed March 2018).

Gao N, Yang F 2017. The calendar of managing major kiwifruit diseases and pests. Northwest Horticulture 1: 32. In Chinese.

Ge Z 2012. The standards and management of young kiwifruit trees in the Shanghai region. Shanghai Agricultural Science and Technology 1: 61–63. In Chinese.

GIA 2018. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Operational Agreement (OA). Government Industry Agreement for Biosecurity Readiness and Response. March 2018).

Guo X, Shi X 2003. The biology and integrated management of important kiwifruit pests in Shaanxi province. China Fruits 1: 45–46. In Chinese.

Haye T, Gariepy T, Hoelmer K, Rossi J-P, Streito J-C, Tassus X, Nicolas Desneux N 2015. Range expansion of the invasive brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys: an increasing threat to field, fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. Journal of Pest Science DOI 10.1007/s10340-015-0670-2.

Huang H, Ferguson AR 2001. Kiwifruit in China. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 29(1): 1–14.

Kiwifruit Vine Health 2016. Most unwanted. (accessed March 2018).

Lara JR, Kamiyama M, Hernandez G, Lewis M, Hoddle MS 2018. Laboratory assessment of feeding injury and preference of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), for Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ (Zespri® Green) and Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis ‘Zesy002’ (Zespri® SunGold). New Zealand Entomologist

Lee D-H, Short BD, Joseph SV, Bergh JC, Leskey TC 2013. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. Environmental Entomology 42:627–41.

Leskey TC, Nielsen AL 2018. Impact of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe: history, biology, ecology, and management. Annual Review of Entomology 63:599–618.

Li X, Yin X, Ma L, Liu Y, Fu J, Liu X 2007. Halyomorpha halys behaviour and their application for control. Journal of Northwest Agricultural & Forestry University (Natural Science Edition) 35 (10): 139–145. In Chinese.

MacFarlane RP, Maddison PA, Andrew IG, Berry JA, Johns PM, Hoare RJB, Lariviere M-C, Greenslade P, Henderson RC, Smithers CN, Palma RL, Ward JB, Pilgrim RLC, Leschen RAB, Towns DR, McLellan I, Teulon DAJ, Lawrence JF, Kuschel G, Wang Q, Hitchings TR, Eastop VF, Martin NA, Fletcher MJ, Stufkens MAW, Dale PJ, Burckhardt D 2010. Phylum Arthropoda. Subphylum Hexapoda. Protura, springtails, diplura, and insects (Chapter 9). In: Gordon, DP ed. New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity Volume 2. Kingdom Animalia. Chaetognatha, Ecdysozoa, Ichnofossils. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch, New Zealand. Pp. 233-467.

Maistrello L, Dioli P, Bariselli M, Mazzoli GL, Giacalone-Forini I 2016. Citizen science and early detection of invasive species: phenology of first occurrences of Halyomorpha halys in southern Europe. Biological Invasions 18: 3109–3116.

Mi H, Zhang H, Liu B 2007. Main technologies of pest management on Shaanxi organic kiwifruit production. Academic Periodical of Farm Products Processing 94(3): 85–87. In Chinese.

Mi QQ, Zhang JP, Han YX, Yan YC, Zhang BX, Li DS, Zhang F 2017. Releases of Trissolcus japonicus and Anastatus sp. for suppression of Halyomorpha halys in kiwifruit orchards. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 11-15, 2017. doi:10.1079/9781786394118.0297. Abstract only.

Normile D 2017. Science suffers as China’s internet censors plug holes in Great Firewall. (accessed March 2018).

Rice KB, Bergh CJ, Bergmann EJ, Biddinger DJ, Dieckhoff C, Dively G, Fraser H, Gariepy T, Hamilton G, Haye T, Herbert A, Hoelmer K, Hooks CR, Jones A, Krawczyk G, Kuhar T, Martinson H, Mitchell W, Nielsen AL, Pfeiffer DG, Raupp MJ, Rodriguez-Saona C, Shearer P, Shrewsbury P, Venugopal PD, Whalen J, Wiman NG, Leskey TC, Tooker JF 2014. Biology, ecology, and management of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Integrated Pest Management 5: A1–13.

Rider DA, Zheng LY, Kerzhner IM 2002. Checklist and nomenclatural notes on the Chinese Pentatomidae (Heteroptera). II. Pentatominae. Zoosystematica Rossica 11: 135–153.

Song X, Zheng W, Zhang X, Ma S 1997. Investigation of kiwifruit pests and diseases in Shaanxi Province. Forest Pest and Disease 4: 17–19. In Chinese.

Song X, Wang P, Zhang X, Ma S, Li Y 1998. Investigation and analysis on occurrence and damage of diseases and pests on kiwifruit in the Shaanxi province. Journal of Northwest Forestry College 13(3): 79–84. In Chinese.

Statistics New Zealand 2017. Global New Zealand – International trade, investment, and travel profile: year ended December 2014. Accessed March 2018.

Sun T 2017. 猕猴桃 and 奇异果. Food and Health 6: 18.

Teulon DAJ, Xu B 2017. Chinese language publications are important for understanding the likely impact of brown marmorated stink bug to kiwifruit. New Zealand Plant Protection 70: 316. Abstract only.

Tourism New Zealand 2018. Markets and Stats. (accessed March 2018).

Vanneste JL 2017. The scientific, economic, and social impacts of the New Zealand outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae). Annual Review of Phytopathology 55: 377-399. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-080516-035530.

Xu B, Shaw N, Gee M, Teulon DAJ 2016. A quantitative comparison of articles on two pests and two pathogens of biosecurity risk to New Zealand extracted from international and Chinese databases. New Zealand Plant Protection 69: 176–185.

Yang Q, Xie Z, Wang L, Yang X, Hu N 2014. The biology of kiwifruit pests and OPM techniques in organic orchards of Hubei province. Southern Fruit Trees 43(6): 132–134. In Chinese.

Yang Z-Q, Yao Y-X, Qiu L-F, Li Z-X 2009. A new species of Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing eggs of Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in China with comments on its biology. Annals of Entomological Society of America 102: 39-47. doi:10.1603/008.102.0104

Zhao Y, Qu X 2008. The control of pests and diseases during the kiwifruit dormant period. Fruit Growers’ Friend 12: 31–32. In Chinese.

Zhang F, Chen Z, Zhang S 2000. The occurrence and control of Halyomorpha halys in kiwifruit orchards. Northwest Horticulture 2: 38. In Chinese.

Zhang Y, Xu J, Jia H, Feng H, Li G 2013. The integrated control of kiwifruit diseases and pests. Fruit Grower’s Friend10: 26. In Chinese.

Zhang Y, Feng H, Xu J, Han Y, Li G, Du Y 2014. Investigation of kiwifruit diseases and pests in Xi’an and their characteristics. Fruit Grower’s Friend 5: 33–34. In Chinese.
How to Cite
Teulon, D., & Xu, B. (2018). Biosecurity risks from stink bugs to New Zealand kiwifruit identified in Chinese language literature. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71, 140-150.
Vol 71 Crop Pests 2 2018