Product formulation is crucial to the success of lipid-based bio-fungicides
Powdery mildew is a major cause of damage to squash plants. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) or soybean oil (SBO) may be effective at treating this disease but these active ingredients must be mixed with an emulsifier to enable even distribution and suspension of fat globules, and an antioxidant to prevent rancidity. The overall formulation may affect disease control efficacy, leaf health and product stability. The effect of different emulsifiers and antioxidants on emulsion stability, odour and shelf-life of AMF and SBO bio-fungicides was tested in laboratory assays, and on powdery mildew disease control efficacy and leaf health on glasshouse-grown squash plants. Both AMF and SBO formulations including a polyglycerol ester emulsifier (GrindstedÂ® PGE 20 Veg) resulted in the best emulsion stability, disease control and leaf health. None of the antioxidants tested significantly affected on disease control efficacy in AMF formulations, but SBO formulations containing vitamin E as the antioxidant provided the best disease control efficacy and emulsion stability.
Ah Chee A, George M, Alavi M, Wurms K 2018. Lipid based fungicides for control of powdery mildew in cucurbits. New Zealand Plant Protection 71: 262-271.
Baysal-Gurel F, Miller SA 2015. Management of powdery mildew in greenhouse tomato production with biorational products and fungicides. In: Paret ML, Vallad GE, Zhang S, Jones JB eds. IV International Symposium on Tomato Diseases. Acta Horticulturae. Pp. 179–183. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1069.25
Finger SA, Wolf TK, Baudoin AB 2002. Effects of horticultural oils on the photosynthesis, fruit maturity, and crop yield of winegrapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 53: 116–124.
Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E 2008. Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresource Technology 99: 8788–8795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.04.048
Ministry for Primary Industries 2018. ACVM registration standard and guideline for the chemistry of veterinary medicines. www.mpi.govt.nz/exporting/agricultural-chemicals-and-vet-medicines/veterinary-medicines/requirements/ (accessed 23 March 2018).
New Zealand Food Safety Authority 2006. ACVM registration standard and guideline for the chemistry of veterinary medicines. www.nzfsa.govt.nz/acvm/publications/standards-guidelines/chem-pc.pdf (accessed 1 October 2006).
Moran RE, Deyton DE, Sams CE, Pless CD, Cummins JC 2003. Soybean oil as a summer spray for apple: European red mite control, net CO2 assimilation and phytotoxicity. HortScience 38: 234–238.
Olcott HS, Mattill HA 1941. Constituents of fats and oils affecting the development of rancidity. Chemical Reviews 29: 257–268. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr60093a005
Perrin DR, Perrin DD 1958. The determination of free fatty acids in milk. Journal of Dairy Research 25: 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900009225
Riken Vitamin Co. 2013. Kinds of food emulsifiers.
Spencer DM 1977. Standardised methods for the evaluation of fungicides to control cucumber powdery mildew. In: McFarlane NR ed. Crop Protection Agents - Their Biological Evaluation. Academic Press, London. Pp. 455–464.
Ulukanli Z, Karaborklu S, Bozok F, Ates B, Erdogan S, Cenet M, Karaaslan MG 2014. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines 12: 901–910. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(14)60133-3
Wurms K, Ah Chee A, Elmer P, Agnew R, Wood P 2011. Developing new biologically-based products for control of botrytis bunch rot. Part 1: Developing a new natural product for mid-season botrytis control - NP2 moves closer to the market. Wine and Viticulture Journal 26: 64–72.
Wurms KV, Ah Chee A 2007. Fungicidal composition comprising anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and soybean oil for the treatment of powdery mildew, Patent No. NZ534007A. Horticulture & Food Research Institute NZ.
Wurms KV, Ah Chee A 2011. Control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) on apple seedlings using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions. New Zealand Plant Protection 64: 201-208.
Wurms KV, Hofland-Zijlstra JD 2015. Control of powdery mildew on glasshouse-grown roses and tomatoes in the Netherlands using anhydrous milk fat and soybean oil emulsions. New Zealand Plant Protection 68: 380–388.
Zhuang QG, Wang LH, Li MZ, Hou TP, Xie Y 2015. â€˜EnSpray 99â€™ Mineral oils for white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona and phytotoxicity to â€˜Hongyangâ€™ kiwifruit. In: Huang H, Zhang Q eds. VIII International Symposium on Kiwifruit. Acta Horticulturae. Pp. 363–369. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1096.42